All political warfare is not created equal. Vladimir Putin’s political shenanigans work better in some places than others. Russian active measures seem to be more successful in Latvia than in Estonia or in Lithuania. Kremlin disinformation campaigns appear to gain more traction in Hungary and Slovakia than in the Czech Republic and Poland.

In Putin’s Dark Ecosystem: Graft, Gangsters, and Active Measures, CEPA Russia Program Director Brian Whitmore explores what accounts for the relative success of the Putin regime’s political warfare in some places and not in others.


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