Russian military forces continue to mass on Ukraine’s eastern border and in occupied Crimea, reaching levels not seen since the start of hostilities in 2014. Against the backdrop of new U.S. sanctions against the Kremlin, Russia’s military build-up and provocative actions in the Black Sea Region present significant challenges for the new Biden administration and the transatlantic community. Former Commander of U.S. Army Europe and CEPA Pershing Chair Ben Hodges and Lauren Speranza, Director of CEPA’s Transatlantic Defense and Security Program, discuss the implications of these recent developments and how the Biden administration and transatlantic alliance should respond to the Kremlin’s escalation in the Black Sea Region.